Primary, or direct transport involves an energy expending conformational change in the membrane protein to transport a specific molecule or ion across the membrane. Secondary, or indirect transport utilizes energy directly to generate a transmembrane gradient down which ions move and then up or down which the coupled molecule or ion of interest is transported indirectly.
ATPases couple the hydrolysis of ATP (to ADP and Pi) with the transmembrane transport of ions against a concentration gradient. An example is Na+K+ ATPase, which pumps 3 Na+ ions out of the cell for 2 K+ ions it pumps into the cell. Because the pump moves ejects three Na+ for every two K+ moved inward, it generates a net electrical differential necessary for polarization. This electrical potential energy is essential for neuronal activity, and it supplies the energy needed for other types of transport such as symport and antiport. animation - Na K ATPase
Active transport of some substances against concentration gradients employs the ATPase-derived energy stored in ion gradients, such as proton (H+) or sodium (Na+) gradients, to drive transporter membrane proteins. In a symport, the ATPase transported molecule and the coupled, co-transported ion move in the same direction. Conversely, the ATPase transported molecule and the coupled, co-transported ion move in the opposite direction in an antiport.
Translocases utilize energy to move large molecules across the outer (Tom complex) and inner (Tim complex) mitochondrial membranes [image, more detail].
Џ beautiful Flash 8 animation - Inner Life of the Cell, which shows active transport of endosomes, and Interpretation: Inner Life of the Cell
Harvard University provides a wonderful video explaining operation of the F1-F0 ATPase. Џ
• A • adhesion • C • cell membranes • cellular signal transduction • centrioles • chemotaxis • chloroplast • cilia • communication • concentration gradients • cytokine receptors • cytoplasm • cytoskeleton • E • energy transducers • endoplasmic reticulum • endosomes • exosome • G • Golgi apparatus • GPCRs • H • hormones • I • ion channels • L • lysosome • M • meiosis • microtubules • mitosis • mitochondrion • N • Nitric Oxide • neurotransmission • neuronal interconnections • nuclear membrane • nuclear pore • P • pinocytosis • proteasome • pumps • R •receptor proteins • receptor-mediated endocytosis • S • second messengers • signaling gradients • signal transduction • spindle • structure • T • transport • two-component systems • V • vacuole • vesicle •
animation - Na glucose symport : Carriers, Pumps, & Channels : The Virtual Cell Textbook - Cell Biology